Martin Michlmayr
Martin Michlmayr

I'm a member of Debian and serve on the boards of Software Freedom Conservancy and Software in the Public Interest.

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Open Source Contributor Agreements: Some Examples

The first part of this article explained the purpose and scope of Contributor Agreements in open source projects. This article presents an overview of some Contributor Agreements that are used in the community.

Contributor Agreements come in all shape and forms, ranging from full-fledged Contributor License Agreements (CLA) that have to be signed to informal consent to some set of rules. This article will take a look at a number of different agreements in order to show that community norms can vary widely.

Apache's Individual Contributor License Agreement

The Apache Software Foundation (ASF) maintains two formal Contributor License Agreements (CLA), one for individual contributors and one for corporate contributions. The Individual CLA covers the following points:

Fedora Project Contributor Agreement

Fedora is in the process of adopting the Fedora Project Contributor Agreement (FPCA), which covers the following points:

The Fedora Project Contributor Agreement does not require contributors to assign copyright to Fedora or Red Hat.

Linux kernel Developer's Certificate of Origin

The Linux kernel project has adopted the Developer's Certificate of Origin. Developers use it to assert the following points:

The way by which developers accept the Developer's Certificate of Origin for each contribution is to put a Signed-off-by line with their name between the description of their change and the actual change.

Debian's Social Contract

While Debian has no formal Contributor Agreement per se, all contributors who become official members of the project have to accept Debian's Social Contract for their Debian related activities. Among other things, the Social Contract states that "Debian will remain 100% free" (free according to the Debian Free Software Guidelines). Therefore, it can be implied that all contributions to Debian made by members of the project are open source. The license of contributions without explicit license statements is not clear since Debian does not define a default license like Fedora. However, Debian developers are encouraged to specify the copyright and license information for their submissions in the debian/copyright file of their software packages.

2010-08-18 17:10:16 +0200 — fossbazaarpermanent link