Is Debian on the QNAP TS-410, TS-410U, TS-412, TS-412U, TS-419P, TS-419P+, TS-419P II, TS-419U, TS-419U+, TS-420, TS-420U, TS-421 and TS-421U fully supported?
Debian 10 (buster) includes support for the QNAP TS-410, TS-410U, TS-412, TS-412U, TS-419P, TS-419P+, TS-419P II, TS-419U, TS-419U+, TS-420, TS-420U, TS-421 and TS-421U. However, some functionality from the original firmware may not be available. Please see the status page to see what is supported.
Please note that these devices are not supported in Debian 11 (bullseye).
Which QNAP devices are supported?
All QNAP devices based on the Marvell Kirkwood platform are supported in Debian 10 (buster). This includes the QNAP TS-110, TS-112, TS-112P, TS-119, TS-119P+, TS-119P II, TS-120 and TS-121, QNAP HS-210, TS-210, TS-212, TS-212-E, TS-212P, TS-219, TS-219P, TS-219P+, TS-219P II, TS-220 and TS-221 as well as the QNAP TS-410, TS-410U, TS-412, TS-412U, TS-419P, TS-419P+, TS-419P II, TS-419U, TS-419U+, TS-420, TS-420U, TS-421 and TS-421U. Older QNAP devices based on the Marvell Orion platform are also supported.
Note: There is no support in Debian 11 (bullseye).
Unfortunately, none of the current ARM-based devices from QNAP are supported. We use the mainline Linux kernel from kernel.org in Debian and most of the CPU platforms used in current QNAP devices are supported adequately there:
- The TS-128, TS-228 and TAS-168 use a Realtek RTD1195 chip which is not supported at all.
- TS-x31 series (TS-131, TS-231 and TS-431) use a Freescale chip which is not supported at all.
- TS-x31+ series (TS-231+ and TS-431+) and TS-x31P series (TS-131P, TS-231P and TS-431P) use an Annapurna Labs Alpine AL-212 chip. There has been some work by consulting company Bootlin on Alpine but currently support is too basic.
There is support for these chips in the Linux kernel but I'm not aware of any work going on to support these devices:
- TS-x28A series (TS-128A and TS-228A) use a Realtek RTD1295.
- TS-328 uses a Realtek RTD1296 chip.
While none of the current ARM-based devices from QNAP work with Debian, the devices based on Intel processors (such as the TS-x51 series) should work out of the box. Please see the Debian on the QNAP forum for more details.
Is Debian on QNAP suited for people new to Linux?
No, I would not recommend you install Debian on your QNAP if you don't have any experience with Linux and Debian. Debian will not install a web interface through which you can control your QNAP, so I recommend you stay with the QNAP firmware.
Can I have both the QNAP firmware and Debian?
No, Debian will completely replace the QNAP firmware on disk and in flash.
You have to choose between the QNAP firmware and the Debian installation
described on my pages. However, it would be possible to make a small
Debian system on your disk with the QNAP firmware by using
Can I go back to the QNAP firmware if I don't like Debian?
Yes, you can restore the original QNAP software without any problems.
Is there a recovery mode?
Yes, the TS-41x/TS-42x devices all have a recovery mode with which a firmware image can be written to flash. This is useful in case there are problems during the installation or an upgrade of Debian. See the recovery mode page for more information.
Is the serial header soldered onto the board already?
Yes, a serial header is on the main board. You only need to prepare a cable with a TTL level shifter for a serial console.
Will I need a serial console to use Debian?
No, the installation and operation of Debian on your QNAP doesn't require a serial console.